Brain Drain in Maryland: Exploring Student Movement from High School to Postsecondary Education and the Workforce
This study finds that Brain Drain does exist. Specifically Maryland high school graduates who attended out-of-state colleges were less likely to return to the Maryland workforce when compared to students who attended instate colleges. This study uses data from the Maryland Longitudinal Data System (MLDS) to link student high school records to college and employment information in order to determine the extent of brain drain in Maryland.
Workforce Outcomes in Maryland for Students Who Do Not Attend College: Patterns Among Students Who Earn a High School Diploma, Certificate of Completion, Diploma via GED, and High School Non-Completers
This report focused on the annual wages earned by the following categories of high school students who did not attend college: regular high school diploma earners, certificate of completion earners, high school diploma via GED earners (ages 16-21), and high school non-completers in academic year 2009-2010. The report used three different methodologies for calculating annual wages. The report found that the GED earners had the highest wages (possibly because they are older and may have more work experience), followed by the high school diploma earners (who narrow the gap with the diploma via GED earners after five years). The non-completers had the next highest wages and the certificate of completion earners had the lowest wages. The report also found differences in the industries in which the different groups primarily worked. Finally, the report explored the policy implications of this analysis by providing in-depth background information on the financial and social burdens for individuals who do not complete high school and for those who complete high school but are not fully engaged in the workforce.
This report examined course taking trends and postsecondary outcomes for Maryland students who were assessed to need remedial coursework upon entering college. Remedial coursework was defined as college courses taken to help students develop the academic skills necessary to succeed in higher education. Using MLDS data, the report found that students who were assessed to need remedial coursework experienced more negative college outcomes, such as lower likelihood of earning a bachelor’s degree, than those who were not assessed to need remedial coursework. The findings of this report indicated a possible disparity between high school instruction and college entry expectations, as well as the potential need for prevention and intervention services in high school and during the transition to college.
This report examined the college and workforce outcomes of high school persisters. High school persisters were defined as students who completed four or five years of high school but did not earn a regular high school diploma or withdraw from high school. Using MLDS data, the report found that the proportion of high school students who persisted through year four was larger than the proportion of students who dropped out. High school persisters were also found to have more negative college and workforce outcomes when compared to students who earned a high school diploma. The findings suggested that high school persisters may benefit from early identification, targeted prevention and intervention efforts, and additional workforce training and/or college preparation.
This report examined the workforce outcomes of students who earned degrees or certificates in early childhood care and education (ECCE) related fields. Using MLDS data, the report found that over 40% of graduates from the 2008-2009 academic year to the 2012-2013 academic year were employed in an ECCE-related industry for all four quarters in the calendar year following graduation. Of the 40% employed in the year following graduation, half were still earning wages in an ECCE-related industry five years after graduation. These findings offered initial information on the ECCE workforce in Maryland.
Assessing the Workforce Outcomes of Maryland Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Postsecondary Graduates
This report examined the workforce outcomes for students who graduated with college degrees in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields in Maryland. The report used MLDS data to determine that Maryland STEM postsecondary degree earners were predominantly male, white, and non-Hispanic. Further, the report found that less than 50% of degree earners received wages for all four quarters in the calendar year following graduation. Additionally, workforce retention at five years post-graduation ranged from 52%-78%, depending on the degree earned. The findings of this report offered an initial examination of STEM postsecondary graduates in Maryland.
This report analyzed the need for inclusion of online education data in the Maryland Longitudinal Data System (MLDS). The report determined that online education data should be included because of the increase in the use of online and digital learning, such as virtual schools and online courses, in K-12 schools and postsecondary institutions. The report examined current trends in online education, both in Maryland and at a national level, and concluded with the recommendation that MLDS collect student data from online education and training programs and establish guidelines to improve data validity and reliability.